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Statcan says number of cannabis users relatively unchanged since legalization

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  • OTTAWA — The national statistics offices says legalizing cannabis doesn’t seem to have much changed how many people use the drug.

    Figures released this morning from Statistics Canada show about 4.6 million people, or 15 per cent of Canadians over age 15, reported using cannabis in the last three months.

    Statistics Canada says that nearly one in five Canadians, or 19 per cent, believe they will use cannabis in the next three months — a higher figure than those who reported current use.

    Nearly half of Canadian who reported using cannabis said they did so for non-medical reasons, while one-quarter say they used it for medicinal purposes.

    The national cannabis survey also shows that non-medical cannabis users were less likely to buy cannabis legally, with only 26 per cent saying they bought it from authorized retailers or online producers.

    The statistics agency reports that 42 per cent of non-medical users say they obtained cannabis illegally, such as through drug dealers, compassion clubs, unlicensed dispensaries or storefronts, and unlicensed websites.

    The Canadian Press

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    Healthy eating obsession can be a sign of mental-health struggles: study

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  • TORONTO — While we should all strive for a balanced diet, York University researchers say the extreme pursuit of healthy eating can be a sign of mental-health struggles.

    Jennifer Mills, an associate professor in York’s psychology department, co-wrote a recent paper on orthorexia nervosa, which she describes as an unhealthy obsession with healthy eating, published in the journal Appetite.

    In reviewing academic literature on the subject, the authors found that people with a history of eating disorders, obsessive-compulsive tendencies, perfectionism and other psychological and behavioural tendencies were at higher risk of developing orthorexia.

    “There is nothing wrong with healthy eating. Healthy eating is something we should all aspire to,” Mills said in an interview. “But (we need) to be aware that mental-health difficulties can manifest through food.”

    Orthorexia has not been recognized in the standard manual psychiatrists use to diagnose mental disorders, and the York study found research on the subject is limited.

    But as so-called clean diets have picked up steam, Mills said there’s been growing interest in medical and research circles about the social and psychological side-effects of a “pathological” preoccupation with healthy eating.

    While there’s overlap between the risk factors for orthorexia and certain eating disorders — such as poor body image, a drive for thinness and dieting — Mills said the conditions differ in key ways, particularly their motivations.

    People with a restrictive eating disorder like anorexia will typically reduce their food intake in order to reach a low body weight or change their appearance. But for those with orthorexia, Mills said the focus on food is about quality rather than quantity.

    Many people with orthorexia are proud of their bodies, she said, but are decidedly picky about what they put in them.

    This often involves eliminating certain types of food from their diets, such as sugar, saturated fat, gluten, animal products, artificial flavours and preservatives.

    For some, she said, the list of forbidden foods can grow so long that their diet may be lacking in essential nutrients, which in severe cases can lead to health hazards such as anaemia, vitamin deficiencies or excessive weight loss.

    But Mills said one of the reasons orthorexia tends to go overlooked, including by medical professionals, is that many people with the condition are physically healthy, even though they may be suffering psychologically.

    “When people go to their doctors and say, ‘I eat really healthy,’ the most typical response they’ll get is, ‘That’s great… Keep doing what you’re doing,'” said Mills.

    “But they may be struggling more privately with just this sense that they’re starting to lose control, that this is actually taking away from their life.”

    For individuals with orthorexia, eating foods that conflict with their diets is likely to cause extreme guilt or anxiety, said Mills. This distress is usually bound up in perceived risks of disease or physical impairment. But in treating their bodies as temples of health, some may lose sight of their mental welfare, she said.

    They may spend a lot of time and money planning and preparing meals, and can find it difficult to eat food made by others, Mills said.

    Some strict dieters find these sacrifices are worth it given the health benefits, Mills acknowledged. But people with orthorexia may feel their fixation on food is so all-consuming that it interferes with their work, family and social activities, she said.

    “When we’re extremely stressed or overwhelmed, we look for ways of coping. And for some people, having very, very tight control over their eating is a way for them to feel like they’re in control, but then the irony is that they’re not,” she said.

    “Being healthy mentally means having flexibility, and having time and mental space freed up for other kinds of things, and not having your world revolve around food.”

    Mills said one of her research team’s most surprising findings was that orthorexia occurs in relatively equal rates between men and women. This suggests the condition may be less like an eating disorder, which disproportionately affect women and girls, and more like anxiety or obsessive-compulsive disorder, which are similarly prevalent across genders, she said.

    She said diagnosing orthorexia can be slippery, because it isn’t defined by specific eating habits, but rather, a pattern of problematic thoughts and behaviours that detract from a person’s quality of life.

    Mills hopes the study increases awareness about orthorexia, a condition she believes is on the rise, fuelled by a culture that prizes healthy eating and wellness among its ultimate virtues.

    “It’s all around us: messages about how we should be doing better; we should be eating better; we should be constantly striving to improve ourselves,” she said.

    “I think it has a way of encouraging black-and-white thinking about food … and (that) can make people feel worse about themselves.”

    Adina Bresge, The Canadian Press

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    Ontario researchers invent way to store vaccines at higher temperatures

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  • Ontario researchers say they’ve come up with a simple way to store vaccines at higher temperatures for weeks at a time, potentially solving a major problem in the fight against preventable diseases around the world.

    The cheap technology from the team at McMaster University involves the use of a sugary gel that allows for easier, longer shipments of vaccines that typically need to be consistently stored at cold temperatures.

    “If we can make vaccines easier and more accessible through technology, then we can save a lot of lives,” said Vincent Leung, a chemical engineering professor and the lead author of the study that was published Tuesday in the journal Scientific Reports.

    Most vaccines require the “cold chain,” an uninterrupted refrigerated supply chain where they’re stored at temperatures between 2 C and 8 C at all times. Otherwise, the effectiveness of vaccines can be greatly affected, the study notes.

    Leung worked for four years on the project as part of his doctoral research and had help from other disciplines, including biochemists and immunologists, he said.

    The solution the researchers devised is simple.

    McMaster chemical engineers had previously created a sugary gel for use in various applications, including an edible coating that can prolong the shelf life of fruits and vegetables.

    The research team mixed two sugars — pullulan and trehalose — with the vaccines and let them dry, either by air, or vacuum to speed up the process. The gel seals in the vaccine, which can later be reconstituted with water by clinicians in the field and given to patients.

    “It’s easier to think of Listerine breath strips because that’s the main material,” Leung explained. “It will form a film like that, then (is) put into a vial for deployment.”

    For the study, the research team stored mixtures of the sugary gel and numerous vaccine types at various temperatures for different lengths of time and then tested the vaccines.

    They found, for example, that “enveloped DNA vaccines” that usually require consistent cold storage, such as the herpes simplex virus type 2 vaccine, retained their efficacy for at least two months of storage at 40 C with the use of the sugary gel. The team also showed the inactivated influenza vaccine remained effective after three months of storage at 40 C.

    “This can really improve deployment and give easier access to those that don’t have refrigeration or access to electricity,” Leung said.

    The fact that the dried gel vaccine can easily be reconstituted by clinicians in the field could make the storage and transportation method invaluable in certain situations, such as the delivery of Ebola vaccines in remote areas of Africa.

    “Part of our goal was to have a very simple and cost-effective solution to address this accessibility issue for vaccines,” Leung said.

    The research team is now looking at partnerships and more funding to further develop the technology, and is also going through the proper regulatory procedures to be approved by the likes of Health Canada and the U.S. Food and Drug Administration.

    “The good thing is the sugars we’re using are already used in the food and drug industry and approved by FDA and Health Canada,” Leung said. “On that end, it should not be as hard to get it approved.”

    Liam Casey, The Canadian Press

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