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‘Pretty consistent:’ Study says animal abundance in seas drops as climate warms

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Animal life in the world’s oceans will drop steadily and consistently as the climate warms, a Canadian-led study suggests.

“What we see is pretty consistent,” said Derek Tittensor, a biologist at Dalhousie University in Halifax. 

“For every degree of warming, we project a five per cent decline in the abundance of animals. The warmer it gets, the more the decline.”

That means that the world’s oceans are on track to lose about 17 per cent of their productivity by 2100 if there are no significant reductions in greenhouse gases.

The study found the impact of climate change is so strong it almost doesn’t matter if commercial fisheries are included in the calculation. The results are nearly the same.

The research, published Tuesday in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, combined six marine ecosystem models with global ecosystem models and emissions projections. Tittensor said that produced a comprehensive projection for the oceans similar to what already exists for the continents.  

“There are winners and losers,” he said.

Arctic seas are expected to become more productive in a warmer world. Waters northeast of Greenland could have 50 per cent more animals by 2100, the study suggests.

But the great majority of the world’s oceans will be less abundant. If greater efforts aren’t made to rein in emissions, almost all mid-latitude and tropical seas will produce between 25 and 50 per cent less.

The report’s conclusions have been tested against actual data on fish stocks. The predicted results and the measured trends agreed.

Warmer waters reduce animal growth in several ways, Tittensor said.

For example, they increase metabolism, which forces fish to burn more energy just staying alive and leaves them less for growth. As well, warmer ocean water mixes less, which slows the cycling of sea floor nutrients needed by the tiny plants at the root of the ocean’s food web.  

The decline in sea life will be concentrated in larger fish, which tend to be the ones humans rely on for food.

“The species that we have a real interest in are likely to be those that are more susceptible,” said Tittensor.

United Nations figures suggest 10 per cent of the world’s people depend on fisheries for their livelihoods. They say 4.3 billion people rely on fish for at least 15 per cent of their animal protein.

“Five per cent might not seem like much of a decline,” Tittensor said.

“But we’re in a world that’s heading towards 10 billion people and the oceans are hugely important in terms like food security and making sure we can feed people.

“Any kind of climate impact is another stress upon the oceans over and above the other stresses they’re experiencing.”

Some of the changes are inevitable. Greenhouse gas levels in the atmosphere already guarantee a certain level of warming.

Tittensor said studies such as his will help managers plan for the changes.

“We can try and adapt to this effect.”

And, he added, we can always try to reduce it as much as possible by cutting carbon emissions.

“The future’s not fixed,” Tittensor said.

“We know the climate’s changing and we know that is going to have consequences. We can move toward reducing our greenhouse emissions.

“We have things we can do. We can tackle this.”

— Follow Bob Weber on Twitter at @row1960

   

Bob Weber, The Canadian Press


Alberta

COASTAL GASLINK PIPELINE PROJECT SETS NEW STANDARD WITH UNPRECEDENTED INDIGENOUS SUPPORT AND PARTICIPATION

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COASTAL GASLINK PIPELINE PROJECT SETS NEW STANDARD WITH UNPRECEDENTED INDIGENOUS SUPPORT AND PARTICIPATION

Coastal GasLink (CGL) is a 670-kilometre pipeline that will deliver natural gas from northeastern British Columbia to LNG Canada’s export terminal in Kitimat, B.C. As part of Coastal GasLink’s commitment to ensuring Indigenous and local communities are able to fully benefit from the construction and operation of the pipeline, we successfully negotiated 20 project and community agreements that clearly demonstrate our commitment to their communities for the long-term.

The Coastal GasLink Pipeline Project has set a new standard for Indigenous engagement and participation in critical energy infrastructure project development and construction. Since the project was first announced in 2012, thousands of hours have gone into listening and collaborating with Indigenous and local communities to create a project that is delivering on environmental and cultural protection, including $1-billion in long-term economic benefits through jobs and contracting opportunities.

“Integrity, collaboration and respect are at the heart of Coastal GasLink’s commitment to creating lasting opportunities for Indigenous communities in northern British Columbia and we’re proud of the relationships we’ve built,” said Tiffany Murray, Coastal GasLink’s director of Indigenous Relations.

“There is unprecedented support for this pipeline project from Indigenous and local communities, including agreements with the 20 elected First Nations along the right of way. Our engagement started at the early conceptual phase and continues today,” added Murray. “We are committed to engaging and working collaboratively on the project as it moves through construction and into operations.”

Coastal GasLink is a 670-kilometre pipeline that will safely deliver natural gas from northeastern B.C. to the LNG Canada liquefaction facility in Kitimat, B.C., connecting clean, sustainability produced Canadian energy to the world and ultimately, playing a critical role in the reduction of global greenhouse gas emissions and air pollution in Asia.

Construction launched in early 2019 following more than six years of rigorous review and environmental assessment. From the beginning, the project team focused on building relationships based on mutual trust and respect by providing meaningful opportunities for participation in project planning and jobs and local contracting prospects for Indigenous and local businesses and their communities.

Photo provided courtesy of TC Energy. Coastal GasLink implemented a Construction Monitoring and Community Liaison Program (CMCL). It provides opportunities for Indigenous members to participate in construction within their traditional territory for the purposes of observing, recording and reporting on implementation of construction activities to their communities.

A milestone moment was marked in June 2018 when leadership from a number of Indigenous groups and Coastal GasLink celebrated the announcement of the commitment for $620 million in contract awards to northern British Columbia Indigenous businesses for the project’s right- of-way clearing, medical, security and workforce accommodations. To date, Coastal GasLink has exceeded its commitments  and  awarded  approximately $720 million in contracts to Indigenous and local businesses.

More than one-third of the field work completed on the project was conducted by Indigenous people and traditional knowledge was considered in its planning and design. The project continues to prioritize Indigenous and local hiring and held 25 Economic Summits along the route in 2018 and 2019 to connect interested job seekers and businesses with potential opportunities. Additionally, a variety of training programs continue to support Indigenous and local trainees and students. To protect Indigenous culture and values along with the environment during project construction, a Construction Monitoring and Community Liaison Program (CMCL) has been launched. The program provides opportunities for Indigenous community members to participate in construction within their traditional territory for the purposes of observing, recording and reporting on implementation of construction activities to their communities. It will continue through construction of the pipeline, which is planned for in-service in 2023.

Photo provided courtesy of TC Energy. Skills training and education is an essential part of Coastal GasLink’s committee to creating an extraordinary legacy. TC Energy invests in skills development and long-term education programs to support Indigenous and local residents and trainees.

Transparency is core to the CMCL program with Indigenous communities by meaningfully participating in the project to monitor the work that is being done. That open, relationship-based approach is something that Coastal GasLink believes is integral to the success of the projec

Harry Bodewitz, a program coordinator who is working closely with CMCL advisors from several Indigenous communities along the project corridor, has seen the value of the program. As construction ramps up, additional CMCL advisors will be brought on to be involved in the program.

“Something might have been planned initially, but once we actually get to the field, that plan may change, or get modified, to make sure it’s done right,” said Bodewitz. “In the CMCL Program, we have an opportunity to observe what’s going on, discuss it and share that with our communities.”

For Mike Gouchie, a CMCL coordinator from Lheidli T’enneh First Nation, the program provides a chance to be out in the field to make sure what matters to his community and neighbouring community CMCL advisors, is at the forefront of the construction program.

“As a CMCL coordinator, I’m able to assist the CMCL advisors to be out in the field with inspectors, construction management and myself to visit sites of interest, to understand the scope of the project in our territories and make sure environmental issues are identified,” he said.

Whether it’s in the field or at the table with First Nation leaders for monthly meetings, Coastal GasLink has involved Indigenous communities every step of the way.

Photo provided courtesy of TC Energy. Coastal GasLink is delivering significant economic benefits to British Columbian families today and for decades to come.

“I’m proud of the relationships we have built and the work we’ve done on this project,” said Murray.

“We believe that by building meaningful, long-term relationships based on trust and integrating feedback into our project, we will create an extraordinary legacy of safety and respect for communities and the environment.”

Background: The Canadian Energy Compendium is an annual Energy Council of Canada initiative which provides opportunity for cross-sectoral collaboration on a topic of shared interest across the Canadian energy sector, produced with the support of Canada’s national energy associations and Energy Council of Canada’s members. The stories contributed to the 2019 edition, Indigenous Energy Across Canada, highlight current conversations celebrating Canada’s dynamic energy sector and encouraging its continuous improvement.

Thanks to Todayville for helping us bring our members’ stories of collaboration and innovation to the public.

Click to read a Foreward from JP Gladu, Chief Development and Relations Officer, Steel River Group; Former President & CEO, Canadian Council for Aboriginal Business

JP Gladu, Chief Development and Relations Officer, Steel
River Group; Former President & CEO, Canadian Council for Aboriginal Business

Jacob Irving, President of Energy Council of Canada

The Canadian Energy Compendium is an annual initiative by the Energy Council of Canada to provide an opportunity for cross-sectoral collaboration and discussion on current topics in Canada’s energy sector.  The 2020 Canadian Energy Compendium: Innovations in Energy Efficiency is due to be released November 2020.

Click to read comments about this series from Jacob Irving, President of the Energy Council of Canada.

Read more on Todayville.

 

 

 

 

 

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Alberta

Hydro-Québec takes partnerships, environmental measures and sharing of wealth to new levels

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The Canadian Energy Compendium is an annual Energy Council of Canada initiative which provides opportunity for cross-sectoral collaboration on a topic of shared interest across the Canadian energy sector, produced with the support of Canada’s national energy associations and Energy Council of Canada’s members. The stories contributed to the 2019 edition, Indigenous Energy Across Canada, highlight current conversations celebrating Canada’s dynamic energy sector and encouraging its continuous improvement.

Thanks to Todayville for helping us bring our members’ stories of collaboration and innovation to the public.

Click to read a Foreward from JP Gladu, Chief Development and Relations Officer, Steel River Group; Former President & CEO, Canadian Council for Aboriginal Business

JP Gladu, Chief Development and Relations Officer, Steel
River Group; Former President & CEO, Canadian Council for Aboriginal Business

THE THIRD PHASE OF JAMES BAY DEVELOPMENT: TAKING PARTNERSHIPS, ENVIRONMENTAL MEASURES AND SHARING OF WEALTH TO NEW LEVELS

This article, submitted by Hydro-Québec, will focus on the development of the third phase of the James Bay complex, namely the generating stations namely the Eastmain-1 and Eastmain-1A/Sarcelle/Rupert project. Emphasis will be placed on the development of a new relationship with the Cree that led to an improved project development model.

The Eastmain Complex, the most recent of the James Bay hydroelectric development: Taking partnerships, environmental measures and sharing of wealth to new levels.

When the initial phases of hydropower development in the Baie-James region of Québec was launched in the 1970s, there was no law on the environment, no environmental ministries and no environmental impact assessment process. So consulting affected communities wasn’t on anyone’s agenda and wasn’t yet part of Hydro-Québec’s approach. In the new millennium, with a new phase of development in this region, close-knit partnerships with the Cree Nation have become the cornerstone of project development throughout Québec.

Nadoshtin and Boumhounan agreements paved the way to new developments in Baie-James in the 2000s

The Nadoshtin agreement (2002) between the Crees and Hydro-Québec opened up the possibility of building and operating the Eastmain-1 hydropower project, while the Boumhounan agreement (2002) provided a framework for the Eastmain 1- A/Sarcelle/Rupert project. The key to success for the Eastmain projects was partially diverting the Rupert River’s flow northward.

But Hydro-Québec’s commercial interest in this new project had to be balanced by clear and extensive measures to preserve the surrounding environment and respect host Cree Nation and Cree communities.

In the framework of the Eastmain-1 project, Hydro-Québec made a number of commitments with a view to

  • reduce the project’s impacts on the environment
  • protect the Cree way of life and encourage partnerships with the Cree communities
  • encourage the awarding of contracts to Cree businesses
  • promote the training and hiring of Cree workers.
  • built local capacity

“…The company wanted to do more than minimize environmental impact; Hydro-Québec wanted community members to see positive gains from the Eastmain developments…”

From the design stage, which was carried out in concert with the Cree, the Eastmain 1-A/Sarcelle/Rupert project incorporated many environmental protection measures, reflecting the Cree traditional knowledge of the community members they consulted. The Cree of Québec were involved in all stages of the project, ensuring they had a voice in how their land would be impacted.

Photo courtesy Hydro-Québec. Yellow sturgeon are raised in a fish hatchery and released into their natural habitat in mid-September, when they have reached a certain maturity. Cree tallymen assist in releasing the fish into the Rupert River in the Baie-James region.

With input from Cree community members, Hydro-Québec devised a combination of dikes and canals to improve water flow, ensuring that the project, which diverts 71% of the river’s flow, flooded only a minimal land area. They also incorporated a substantial ecological in-stream flow and a series of weirs in the river to protect fish habitats, biological diversity, preserve the landscape, and maintain navigation and other activities in the area.

Furthermore, Hydro-Québec signed an unprecedented water management agreement with the Cree to ensure that the modulation of the ecological in-stream flow was managed in a cooperative manner.

Economic spinoffs

In addition to helping preserve the local environment, Hydro-Québec was committed to bringing growth opportunities to the Cree of Québec. The company wanted to do more than minimize environmental impact; Hydro-Québec wanted community members to see positive gains from the Eastmain developments.

Under the Boumhounan Agreement, an extensive participation program built around information and consultation with Cree stakeholders was put in place. It also made funds available for the Cree to finance fisheries, capacity building and traditional activities projects.

When the Eastmain 1A/Rupert diversion project was completed in 2013, the Cree and Hydro-Québec signed the Reappropriation Agreement, giving Cree land users the necessary support to maintain their traditional activities as long as the Rupert River diversion is in operation.

Post-project consultations: ensuring that measures were effective

The COMEX, a joint committee composed of 3 members appointed by the Government Quebec and 2 members appointed by the Cree Nation government, organized consultations with Cree communities to hear their views on the effectiveness of environmental and social mitigation measures put in place for the Eastmain 1A/Rupert diversion project. Approximately 200 members of the Cree Nation from six communities participated in the consultations organized in November 2012.

Photo courtesy Hydro-Québec. Between 2002 and 2005, prior to the impoundment of the Eastmain-1 reservoir, 50 archeologists and Cree workers undertook archeological digs. They discovered 158 sites and their work shows that the Baie-James territory has been occupied by these populations for the last 5,000 years.

The major findings of the COMEX were as follows:

  • […]”the Committee is convinced that the Eastmain-1-A and Sarcelle Powerhouses and Rupert Diversion Project will have contributed to greater understanding between all the parties concerned, to greater Cree involvement in the development of the territory, and perhaps to empowering them to achieve their long- term economic and community development goals.”
  • “Compared to previous projects carried out in the territory, the Eastmain-1- A/Sarcelle/Rupert project included more adequate and an unprecedented number of mitigation and compensation measures, for both environmental and social impacts. Many of these measures are aimed at helping Cree land users reclaim the territory. A new approach was developed and the Crees have benefited from the partnerships built with the proponent, thereby forging a new relationship.”
  • “Hydro-Québec was proactive, exceeding the requirements of the certificate of authorization in an effort to minimize the project’s impacts and ensure greater Cree involvement in environmental and social follow-up activities.”
  • “Hydro-Québec went to great lengths to ensure that Aboriginal communities derive benefit from the project.”

A new project development model

The Eastmain Complex – the most recent phase of development in Baie-James – added a potential energy output of 8.7 TWh per year, enough to power more than 500,000 Québec homes. The new relationships that Hydro-Québec and the Cree Nation developed over that period have become models for future energy resource development throughout Québec. With considerable untapped hydropower potential and a strong wind potential in Québec, Hydro-Québec’s new and improved project development model holds great promise for the future of clean energy in northeast North America.

Jacob Irving, President of Energy Council of Canada

The Canadian Energy Compendium is an annual initiative by the Energy Council of Canada to provide an opportunity for cross-sectoral collaboration and discussion on current topics in Canada’s energy sector.  The 2020 Canadian Energy Compendium: Innovations in Energy Efficiency is due to be released November 2020.

Click to read comments about this series from Jacob Irving, President of the Energy Council of Canada.

Read more on Todayville.

 

 

Continue Reading

october, 2020

sat03oct9:30 am4:30 pmCharity Checkstop9:30 am - 4:30 pm MST Taylor Drive, North of 32 ST, South of 43 ST Event Organized By: The Central Alberta Crime Prevention Centre

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