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Medical examiner tells Alberta trial lack of oxygen didn’t cause toddler’s death

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LETHBRIDGE, Alta. — The medical examiner who did an autopsy on a 19-month-old boy says there was no suggestion a lack of oxygen had anything to do with the child’s death.

David and Collet Stephan are on trial in Lethbridge, Alta., on a charge of failing to provide the necessaries of life for their son Ezekiel. They treated the toddler with alternative and natural medicines instead of seeking medical assistance right away.

Dr. Bamidele Adeagbo on Tuesday repeated the view he also presented in court a day earlier that Ezekiel clearly died of bacterial meningitis and a lung infection in March 2012.

David Stephan, who’s representing himself, pointed out that the first ambulance that tended to his son was missing key equipment, so his son was without oxygen for almost nine minutes.

“Is it fair that you did not take into consideration the amount of time Ezekiel had not had air in that ambulance in your findings?” Stephan asked.

“There is no evidence that Ezekiel did not have air,” Adeagbo replied.

The pathologist, who was working as a medical examiner in Calgary in 2012, testified by video from Indiana, where he now works as a pathologist.

He said it’s important to keep an open mind during an autopsy and to take tissue for study, including from the brain. Adeagbo said there were no signs of any effects from oxygen deprivation.

“The issue of the lack of oxygen … was answered totally by the pathology,” he said.

“If there was oxygen deprivation injuries, I would have seen it. It was not in the brain.”

Stephan also asked Adeagbo whether his work as a medical examiner was influenced by others. On Monday, Stephan produced a letter from Alberta Justice to the medical examiner’s office warning about Stephan’s background.

“There is information to suggest the family and extended family are sovereign citizens, also known as being from a sovereign or freedom group. Those from this group tend to be anti-government and anti-establishment and there are suspicions that they are typically well-armed,” Stephan read from the document.

Adeagbo replied that the office is independent and his only concern was finding out why Ezekiel had died. He said the warning didn’t influence the way he did the autopsy.

“At this point, whether it’s the Taliban or whatever it is, I don’t care,” said Adeagbo.

“Do you feel it’s appropriate on the day of the autopsy that you were given a letter with prejudicial information? Did this letter at all affect your opinion moving into the autopsy of Ezekiel Stephan?” Stephan asked.

“No, it did not.”

Stephan, as well as the lawyer representing his wife, are challenging the pathologist’s qualifications to testify as an expert witness. Stephan had already questioned the doctor for seven hours by midday Tuesday. Until he is accepted as a witness, none of Adeagbo’s comments are considered to be evidence.

It is the second trial for the Stephans. A jury found them guilty in 2016, but the Supreme Court overturned the convictions last year and ordered a new trial. This one is before a judge alone.

The trial, which was originally scheduled for one month, is likely to stretch into the summer. Justice Terry Clackson said Adeagbo will probably require an extra three days on the stand.

The Court of Queen’s Bench doesn’t normally sit in July and August, but could for this case if necessary, Clackson said.

“You will have me in the month of July … unhappily,” the judge told court.

“I’m hearing this case until it’s done. We’ll sit until August if we have to.”

— Follow @BillGraveland on Twitter

 

Bill Graveland, The Canadian Press

National

Ethnic media aim to help maintain boost in voting by new Canadians

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OTTAWA — Zuhair Alshaer spends most of his day editing articles and organizing interviews with politicians for his Ottawa-based Arab Canada newspaper, to introduce Arabic-speaking new Canadians to federal politics.

The community Alshaer’s paper serves is growing — more immigrants are arriving in Canada from Africa, Asia and the Middle East than ever before, surpassing Europe that was once the dominant source.

And it is also becoming more politically engaged: The voting rate of immigrant from West Central Asia and the Middle East increased to 73 per cent in the 2015 election from the 57 per cent recorded four years earlier, the largest increase among the 10 immigrant regions studied by Statistics Canada.

For Alshaer, and other ethnic media outlets, all his efforts are aimed at helping Arabic-speaking new Canadians kick isolation and get involved in politics.

“We’re trying to encourage our audience to integrate,” he said. “We show them how important is to participate in politics.”

Research published by Statistics Canada in 2016 highlighted that new Canadians made up about one-fifth of the voting population. Their numbers are likely to increase in the coming years: Statistics Canada projects the proportion of foreign-born individuals who immigrated to Canada could reach between 25 per cent and 30 per cent by 2036.

Alshaer, a Palestinian immigrant who came to Canada 20 years ago, is hoping that his monthly newspaper, launched three years ago, will connect his community with federal politics, so more people cast a ballot on Oct. 21.

“We should believe that Canada is our country and behave accordingly,” he said.

The most recent issue of his newspaper, published earlier this month, included an op-ed signed by Environment Minister Catherine McKenna, and an extended interview with Conservative finance critic Pierre Poilievre, who are seeking re-election in their respective Ottawa-area seats.

“We worked on building trust between our audience and the politicians and candidates,” said Alshaer, the paper’s editor-in-chief. “We don’t have any affiliation with any candidate or political party.”

But newcomers from countries with no established democratic traditions is an obstacle that makes participating in Canadian politics more challenging. Research has also shown that lower-income individuals — a group that includes newcomers — may not see voting as a priority for because they are more focused on more immediate concerns, adding another obstacle.

“A lot of newcomers, in the first few years, are facing tremendous anxiety and challenges when it comes to economic and social integration,” said Liberal MP Omar Alghabra, who was born in Saudi Arabia to a Syrian family and immigrated to Canada about 30 years ago.

Statistics Canada data show that turnout rates for established immigrants, defined as those who lived in the country for at least 10 years, was a few points higher in 2015 than recent immigrants.

Overall, turnout rates were up by 14.4 percentage points in 2015 compared to the 2011 election, Statistics Canada said, with above-average increases recorded for newcomers from West Central Asia, the Middle East and Africa.

Getting used to the idea of voting “takes a few years for newcomers to wrap their heads around it,” Algabra said. He added it was important to explain to new Canadians that the outcomes of the election “will have an immediate impact on their lives” and each outcome could mean different things to different people.

A few of the volunteers with Algabra’s re-election campaign are newcomers. Some don’t even have their permanent residency or citizenship, but are “excited about living in a country with a society that encourages participation and democratic practices,” Algabra said.

“I’ve also seen a group of newcomers who are extremely excited about earning their Canadian citizenship,” Alghabra said. “They are really keen on not only voting, but also participating in democratic process.”

Maan Alhmidi, The Canadian Press

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Saskatchewan abandons commitment to improve northern airport after crash: chief

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Louie Mercredi of the Fond du Lac Denesuline First Nation

REGINA — A chief of a remote Saskatchewan First Nation says the province’s decision not to help improve an airport runway in his community while doing so in a city outside Regina shows racism.

Louie Mercredi of the Fond du Lac Denesuline First Nation says the province is abandoning its commitment to develop the runway near his isolated northern reserve.

He says the airport is in poor condition and the runway needs to be expanded. He’s been pushing for changes since one person died and nine were seriously injured following a plane crash there in December 2017.

Lori Carr, minister of government relations, says the province didn’t receive a completed application for the project.

She says officials requested in June that the First Nation hand in a full application, but it was not done.

“It should not come down to an application,” Mercredi told a news conference in Regina on Thursday.

“I have told my people that we are getting a runway upgraded so the province (has) created a liar. I’ve lied to my people.”

Mercredi said the province was almost done with the design of the project. He says the First Nation submitted an application in March, but it was incomplete because staff lacked technical expertise.

He wants the province to help finish the application and fund the project, since the government committed to doing so.

“Now that I’ve found out a Moose Jaw airport application was also late and that was accepted by the province, what is going on here?” he said.

“Are they just supporting their ridings? What I’m seeing is racism here.”

“This airport is the only access point for many northern communities and the fact that needed improvements still haven’t been made is ridiculous,” said Opposition infrastructure critic Buckley Belanger.

A runway expansion for Moose Jaw was one of nearly 30 projects the province brought to the federal government in a request for infrastructure funding, which has been the subject of an ongoing dispute between Saskatchewan and Ottawa.

The Saskatchewan NDP said the government has been engaged in “partisan finger-pointing” over infrastructure funding.

Mercredi said he has sent about a dozen letters to the provincial government seeking updates to his proposal and was under the impression the province was still committed to paying for runway improvements.

“Still ’til today no response.”

He said he learned through a news report that the runway wasn’t a priority for the province.

Deputy premier Gord Wyant has said the upgrades are not a priority for the government this budget year.

“What is more important than human lives?” Mercredi asked.

“What kind of government is this when they prioritize landfills before human lives?”

Bobby Cameron, chief of the Federation of Sovereign Indigenous Nations, said applications shouldn’t be the issue and the province should focus on safety.

Mercredi said the Fond du Lac runway isn’t safe for larger aircraft, so people are transported on smaller planes and their flights are consistently delayed.

As well, he said, most of their food is flown in and that’s fallen behind due to having to downsize the planes being used.

Carr said Fond du Lac’s existing runway is safe and the Transportation Safety Board didn’t find the airstrip contributed to the 2017 crash.

The safety board said in a report in December that the pilot of the plane took off despite noticing ice on the aircraft during a pre-flight inspection.

The board said people using remote, northern airports are at substantial risk because of a lack of proper equipment for de-icing planes.

The federal government announced in February that it was spending $12 million for safety upgrades at the airport.

Stephanie Taylor, The Canadian Press

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