Paul Renaud is only too aware of what the power of wind can do to trees.
After violent windstorms recently swept through southern Ontario and Quebec, uprooting trees and leaving a trail of damage across a vast territory, Renaud’s thoughts went right to his sugar maples in Lanark Highlands, Ont., where storms once considered rogue now seem more frequent.
“We’ve had two in six months,” he said in an interview. “Each one has taken out maple trees.”
Worsening storms aren’t the only changes Renaud sees. As chair of the climate change working group for the Ontario Maple Syrup Producers Association, he says dramatic weather is having a serious effect on his industry.
Syrup producers are recording declining yields due to increasing global temperatures, which are leading to more invasive pests, sap that is less sugary and shorter harvesting periods than the normal four-to-six-week season.
Longer and more severe droughts kill seedlings and stunt root growth. Unpredictable spring frosts, meanwhile, can shock and destroy new leaf buds, while milder winters with less snow cover leave bare roots exposed.
“Trees get stressed and then they are more susceptible to pests and pathogens,” said Joshua Rapp, an associate at Harvard University’s school of forestry.
The attacks keep coming. An infestation of tent caterpillars in 2018 left some Ontario producers with 30 per cent less syrup than the year before. The caterpillars eat the leaves, which help make the sugar, leading to less sugary saps.
With earlier and shorter tapping seasons, producers are scrambling to find workers. One third of North American producers said they missed their first sap flow of the season several years in a row, according to a 2019 survey of nearly 400 producers.
Each year between late February and early May, maple syrup producers rely on the delicate freeze-thaw cycles of spring. When nighttime temperatures drop below zero, the maple tree contracts and sap rushes up from the roots into its branches. When temperatures rise during the day, the tree’s wood expands, putting pressure on the branches and forcing the sap back down the trunk and into the taps.
The sap is boiled until most of the water evaporates, leaving behind the dense, sweet liquid we know as maple syrup. It takes about 40 litres of sap to make one litre of maple syrup.
By 2100, some U.S. states could see production shift one month earlier — and become nonexistent in some regions like Virginia. “As you go farther north, there’s still a sap season but it moves earlier in the year,” Rapp said in a recent interview.
The effects of changing temperatures are felt unequally. Warmer temperatures could benefit northern parts of Ontario and Quebec, which could see up to 40 litres more sap per tap each year.
“Moving it earlier in time actually makes the season better, because it lengthens the season out,” Rapp said. But he warned that higher temperatures produce less sugary sap, and as a consequence, more sap is needed to make the maple syrup consumers are used to.
Meanwhile, the growth in global demand for the sweet syrup shows no sign of abating. When the balmy 2021 winter and abrupt spring thaw brought low harvests, the industry had to dip deeply into its strategic reserves to meet global demand, which rose by 23 per cent. In response, Quebec Maple Syrup Producers drained nearly half its reserve — 23,000 tonnes worth $150 million.
The industry says keeping up with global syrup demand will require tapping 120 million more trees by 2080. That rise in consumption will add to the carbon levels in the atmosphere due to the wood or other fossil fuels burned to boil the sap.
“Eighty-five to 90 per cent of emissions that a maple syrup producer has relates to the boiling of sap,” Renaud said.
In their defence, producers contend that tapping more trees protects those trees from being harvested, ensuring that the industry sequesters more carbon than it releases.
Whatever the carbon math, the growing demand for maple syrup and diminished yields are requiring producers to look for ways to mitigate the effects of climate change. For example, thinning of maple stands encourages the growth of larger crowns on the remaining trees, “and that’s going to help them be healthier and produce more sap and sugar,” Rapp said.
But, he acknowledges that to save the industry, “the biggest thing is addressing climate change.”
This report by The Canadian Press was first published May 30, 2022.
— Meghan McGee is a nutrition scientist in Toronto and a fellow in the Certificate in Health Information program at the Dalla Lana School of Public Health, University of Toronto.
Meghan McGee, The Canadian Press
Exercise in ‘patience’ pays off for Kadri, says winning a factor in joining Flames
By David Alter
Nazem Kadri said the Calgary Flames expressed interest the moment he became an unrestricted free agent, but it was an “elaborate process” before he finally signed on the dotted line on Thursday.
“The patience definitely did me some good,” Kadri told reporters in a Zoom call Friday. “There were some decisions to be made.”
The Flames’ wild off-season took another dramatic turn Thursday when the team signed the coveted free agent to a seven-year, US$49-million deal.
Before the deal could be made official, Calgary sent forward Sean Monahan and a conditional 2025 first-round pick to the Montreal Canadiens for future considerations in a move to create salary cap space for Kadri’s contract.
“That’s part of the reason why it’s been taking so long,” Kadri said from Paris, where he is on vacation.
The 32-year-old Kadri was one of the biggest names available in free agency after an all-star season with Colorado that ended with the Avalanche winning the Stanley Cup.
The benefits of returning to Canada, where his NHL career started, and taking part in the ‘Battle of Alberta’ with the provincial-rival Edmonton Oilers were benefits to signing with the Flames, but what ultimately led him to sign was how close he feels the team is to winning a Stanley Cup.
“Ultimately, it’s about winning and that played a huge factor in me coming to Calgary,” Kadri said. “The time is now and it certainly can be close with the moves we’ve made and me hopping on board.”
The 31-year-old Kadri had 87 points (28 goals, 59 assists) in 71 games for the Avalanche in 2021-22. He added 15 points in 16 playoff games, including the overtime winner in Game 4 of the Stanley Cup final against Tampa Bay.
That was his return to action after being injured in Game 3 of the Western Conference final after being hit from behind by Edmonton forward Evander Kane.
Kadri’s addition capped a wild off-season for the Flames that saw star forward Johnny Gaudreau walk away in free agency.
The Flames’ leading scorer last season (115 points), and a finalist for the Hart Trophy as league MVP, Gaudreau informed the Flames before the start of the free agency period that we would not be re-signing with the Flames in a desire to move closer to home.
The New Jersey native signed a seven-year, $68.25-million contract with the Columbus Blue Jackets when free agency opened on July 13,.
Calgary was then informed that forward Matthew Tkachuk, who had a breakout season with 42 goals and 104 points, would not sign a contract extension after the upcoming season.
What looked like a potential nightmare for Calgary started to turn around when the Flames dealt Tkachuk to Florida for a package that included forward Jonathan Huberdeau, who had 115 points last season, and defenceman Mackenzie Weegar.
The Flames then locked up Huberdeau long-term with an eight-year, $84-million contract extension.
“It’s alarming to anybody when you lose players of that magnitude,” Kadri said. “But I think Brad (Flames GM Brad Treliving) has done a great job getting some return and valuable players.”
This is not the first time the Flames have tried to add Kadri to their roster. The Flames attempted to acquire him from the Toronto Maple Leafs in 2019, but Kadri used the no-trade clause in his contract to veto the deal. Kadri was then traded to the Avalanche on July 1, 2019.
“I didn’t see myself leaving (Toronto),” Kadri said about the situation. “That had nothing to do with the city of Calgary or the organization, I just wanted to stay where I was.
“It’s important for me to clarify that. I think it’s important because I’ve always admired the city of Calgary and Canada in general. I’m a Canadian boy. I love playing in Canada but it’s certainly ironic, but it was always a team that was on my radar.”
Kadri was selected seventh overall by Toronto in the 2009 NHL draft and has 512 points (219 goals, 293 assists) in 739 career games with the Maple Leafs and Colorado.
The London, Ontario native has yet to have his day with the Stanley Cup, but his plans include taking it to his hometown.
He also said he’s going to bring it to Toronto, where he spent his first eight NHL seasons.
“I’ve done a lot of growing up in that city as well and there’s been lots of supports of mine there,” he said.
This report by The Canadian Press was first published Aug. 19, 2022.
‘Just horrid’: Police watchdog now investigating death of man in Alberta RCMP cell
CALGARY — An Alberta man is hoping for answers now that the province’s police watchdog is investigating the death of his son while in RCMP custody.
Addison Hartzler, 30, was found dead in an RCMP holding cell in Grande Prairie, Alta., on June 3, nine hours after he was arrested for public mischief on suspicion he had falsely reported a break-and-enter at the home where he was staying.
Greg Hartzler said he was told his son was acting in a “psychotic and delusional” manner, but police didn’t call paramedics or have him assessed by a doctor.
“They never even sought any medical attention in the entire nine hours they had him in custody. At no point in time was he ever assessed medically,” Hartzler told The Canadian Press Thursday.
“If they had, I believe he would have gone to the hospital in Grande Prairie directly from the house instead of the holding cell.”
The case was being investigated by RCMP, but Hartzler requested the Alberta Serious Incident Response Team look into it.
He was only informed Wednesday that ASIRT had taken over the investigation as of Aug. 9.
Hartzler said he wants to know if the RCMP was negligent in his son’s death and to protect other parents from going through a similar experience.
“Oh, Lord — If we can be an advocate for this, I guess maybe that’s our lot in life,” Hartzler said.
“From a father’s perspective and a family’s perspective, it’s just horrid. We were expecting him to be at our house that morning. By noon he was planning to leave Grande Prairie to come to his brother’s graduation,” he said.
Hartzler said his son had been in the Grande Prairie area northwest of Edmonton since April looking for work. He said they talked a day before his son’s death and the younger Hartzler seemed fine as he watched an NHL playoff game.
The father said he is relieved ASIRT is investigating.
“We’re trusting that we at least get somewhat of a better investigation with ASIRT doing it and hopefully more objective than what I believe RCMP (would do), even though it was their special unit. We’re hopeful we will get a more thorough investigation,” Hartzler said.
“At the end of the day, everything and every direction we turn to points to negligence. As Canadian people, we have to start saying enough is enough and the RCMP has to be held accountable for these types of actions.”
An RCMP spokeswoman said it’s not unusual for the special unit to do the investigation on cases where there are injuries to people in custody.
“What typically occurs is that even though it remains with us, there is an ongoing process where information about the investigation is shared with ASIRT so they have awareness of what happened and the facts and information as it progresses,” said Cpl. Deanna Fontaine.
“In this case, in the course of that, a decision was made by ASIRT to take it back.”
Alberta Justice said the original decision to leave the investigation with the RCMP was made due to a lack of resources with ASIRT at the time.
“ASIRT’s resourcing issues at the time were well known and were raised in correspondence with the Hartzler family’s lawyer in the interest of being fully transparent regarding the capacity challenges the agency was facing,” said spokesman Jason van Rassel.
“We can now confirm that the director of law enforcement referred this case to ASIRT for investigation on Aug. 9. As this matter is now with ASIRT, Alberta Justice and Solicitor General isn’t able to provide further comment.”
This report by The Canadian Press was first published Aug. 18, 2022.
Bill Graveland, The Canadian Press
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