OTTAWA — Canada’s new law legalizing recreational cannabis goes into force on Wednesday. Here are five things about what’s legal and what’s not under this historic piece of legislation:
1. Can’t vote, can’t toke: The legal age for consuming cannabis is at least 18 or 19, depending on the province. The Justice Department says the age restrictions are in keeping with, “a strict legal framework for controlling the production, distribution, sale and possession of pot.” Of the three priorities the department cites for accomplishing those goals, the top one is keeping cannabis “out of the hands of youth.”
2. If you missed that point, the slammer awaits: The law builds in features that the government says are designed to keep young people from using pot. The act creates two new criminal offences for giving or selling cannabis to a young person, or using a youth to “commit a cannabis-related offence.” If you’re convicted of either, the penalty could be steep: a maximum prison sentence of 14 years.
3. Mad Men stand down: The law prohibits advertising marijuana or doing anything to entice or promote its use among young people. It’s the same approach that applies to banning tobacco advertising. That means no packaging or labelling of a product to make it “appealing” to youth. It will also be against the law to sell pot through a vending machine or self-service display. Promoting weed is forbidden “except in narrow circumstances where young people could not see the promotion,” says the Justice Department. A conviction on any of this could lead to a fine of up to $5 million or three years in prison.
4. So what is legal? If you are of legal age, you can possess, in public, 30 grams of legal cannabis, dried or its equivalent in non-dried form. It will be legal to share that amount with other adults. It will be legal to buy fresh cannabis and cannabis oil from a provincially-licensed retailer, or online from a federally-licensed producer. It will also be legal to grow four cannabis plants per residence for personal use from a licensed seed or seedling — except in Quebec and Manitoba, which have banned home grown weed. You can also make food or drinks using cannabis, in your own home as long as you don’t use organic solvents to create concentrated products. But it won’t be legal buy edibles or concentrates for about one more year.
5. Leave it at home: It will still be illegal to carry cannabis across Canada’s international borders. That includes when travelling to places where it is decriminalized, such as the Netherlands. As for the United States — don’t even dream about it. Yes, pot might be legal in some U.S. states, but that simply doesn’t matter. The U.S. border is federally controlled and, under the federal Controlled Substances Act, cultivation, possession and distribution of cannabis remain illegal. U.S. customs agents have sweeping powers to deny entry to anyone suspected of having used the drug in the past — even without a conviction — or planning to use it in the U.S.
The Canadian Press
Note to readers: This is a corrected story. A previous version said cannabis was legal in the Netherlands.
Canada’s food supply chain is strong but will world-wide pressures effect It?
Within days of government’s shelter in place orders, there were ridiculous scenes of people fighting over toilet paper along with empty shelves in some other areas of grocery stores, including the fresh meat section. It was an eye-opener of what could come. With the food supply chains facing unprecedented pressures caused by Covid-19, governments have been assuring citizens that there are no food shortages and there is no need to hoard or panic buy.
After the weeks of the ongoing Covid-19 disaster there are cracks showing in the world’s ability to keep all of its citizens fed. Overseas there have already been scenes of hungry people looting food trucks. On April 28th, there were street riots in Lebanon over food price increases.
A healthy food supply chain relies on predictability
In 2015 the Group of 20 (G20), held a conference to address “…food waste and loss – a major global problem…”. It was a much simpler time. The world-wide food supply chain did not have to deal with a very contagious and complicated coronavirus.
When working properly, a country’s food distribution is a marvel of efficiently and logistics. Delivering massive amounts of fresh food to consumers to every corner of the country, every day. But a chain is only as strong as its weakest link.
“It’s something we don’t like doing, no dairy farmer likes doing it. There are just some real limitations in our supply chain right now.” Karlee Conway with Alberta Milk
There are some scenarios happening in North America that have to be an eye-opener for everyone. Food rotting in the fields, whole crops getting ploughed under, fresh milk getting poured down the drain. The milk dumping is also happening in Canada. Karlee Conway with Alberta Milk said that many farmers are forced to make a difficult decision.
“It’s something we don’t like doing, no dairy farmer likes doing it. There are just some real limitations in our supply chain right now.”
And even more shocking, meat and egg producers in North America have already started culling their animals. A lack of buyers and the closing of processing plants due to sickness and even death of employees.
He and she nailed it
Agriculture Minister Devin Dreeshen said this on March 27:
“Alberta does not have a food supply shortage, but the entire national supply chain should be declared an essential service. There are a lot of moving parts to get food to market and onto kitchen tables. Alberta’s supply chain is responding well, but it is not business as usual.”
Many things have changed since then. Elaine Power, a food security expert at Queen’s University, is more blunt, saying the coronavirus pandemic is exposing “critical weaknesses” in various vital networks, including health care systems and food supply chains. “The people who are already food insecure, that’s only going to get worse. The type of resources that people would normally draw on probably aren’t going to be there.”
Daily press briefing on April 21st
Prime Minister Justin Trudeau said in regard to the Cargill beef processing plant closing and another major Alberta plant’s production reduction after staff contracting Covid-19:
“We are not at this point anticipating shortages of beef, but prices might go up. We will of course be monitoring that very, very carefully.”
“We stress the importance of avoiding food losses”
On the same day the Prime Minister talked about the Alberta meat processing plants, the G20’s Agriculture and food ministers held an emergency meeting. The G20 makes up more than 80% of the world’s Gross Domestic Product (GDP). At this virtual meeting, the countries agreed to the following:
“Any emergency measures to contain the spread of the COVID-19 pandemic must not create unnecessary barriers to trade or disruption to global food supply chains.” And that, “Under the current challenging circumstances, we stress the importance of avoiding food losses and waste caused by disruptions throughout food supply chains, which could exacerbate food insecurity and nutrition risks and economic loss.”
Easy to say, much harder to do
Just in North America, if the past 5 weeks alone was a test on the G20’s agreed to statement, an “F” has been earned so far.
Our food system is distributed into two main streams; the large bulk volume packaging going to the food service areas and the smaller personal size portions going to consumer stores.
When the full stop happened, restaurants, hotels, schools and the majority of bulk orders stopped. Regular expedited weekly sales were sent to the grocery stores, leaving massive amount of unsold produce in the fields.
“On March 24th, everything changed, from brokers the orders stopped, everything got quiet. The 25th, (was) super-quiet. Producers were blindsided. Since then tomato (sale) volumes are down 85%, green beans 50%, cabbage is (down about) 50%.”
And it is not just those crop. It’s onions, squash, lettuce and more.
Images of wasted produce and food lines
Without the regular food service industry orders, Florida farmer Paul Allen, in the just first week of April, plowed under more than six million pounds of green beans and cabbages back into his fields. He was far from the only farmer to do this. Allen explains,
“Four million people in the winter season eat lavishly three times a day on cruises from Miami alone. And 120 million tourists per year go to theme parks.”
His sales died up overnight.
This has lead to hundreds of millions of kilograms and billions of dollars’ worth of life sustaining, nutritious, fresh produce and milk has ended up as rotting waste and dumped down the drain. While, at the same time there were images of thousands of people line up for a food donation.
Countless food banks would gladly take and distribute this lost food. But the food supply system we know is one that is protected, regulated, and inspected. The last few weeks shows that in a world-wide emergency, the system has a few weak links.
On April 27th, after seeing images of milk waste, New York Governor Andrew Cuomo tweeted that he was stepping in to stop the milk dumping, asking that “…dairy producers use the excess milk to make yogurt and cheese that will be distributed to food banks & those in need.”
United Nations warns of famines of ‘biblical proportions’
It’s not just in North America. Problems are showing up around the world. In India, cows are being fed strawberries to get some use out of crops.
The United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization has reported the ‘Hammer Blow’ from the corona virus could by the end of 2020, double the amount of people facing actuate food insecurity to 265 million, up from 130 million in 2019. These numbers lead the UN to warn of the possibility of famines of ‘biblical proportions’ across as many as ‘three dozen countries’.
This kind of pending suffering will be hard to stop when the richest and most generous countries in the world are having their own food supply issues, while taking such a massive hit to their economies.
Spring is the start of Alberta’s growing season
In Alberta, the government has already made a plea for workers to fill as many of the 70,000 jobs in the food supply system. Jobs that are usually filled by temporary foreign workers, another program affected by the pandemic. With the planting season upon us, farmers are deciding how much and what to plant in 2020.
Meat production is a major part of Alberta’s economy
Meat production and processing in Alberta is vital to Canada’s supply of food. The three main beef plants in the province, Cargill in High River, JBS Canada in Brooks and Harmony Beef Company in Balzac, have all had Covid-19 problems. While a lot of the final meat processing can and is completed in production facilities and butcher shops across the country, these three main plants are responsible for 75-80% of the federally-inspected slaughter of the cattle for all of Canada.
Meat processing employees work in close quarters, side-by-side on fast moving assembly lines. With this very contagious virus, it has spread through the workforce. At least 759 workers have tested positive for Covid-19 at the Cargill meat processing plant in High River, which has a workforce of 2,000. There are another 408+ people in the community that have tested positive for Covid-19, making this the largest outbreak linked to a single site in Canada. The Cargill plant is now temporarily closed.
At least 276 workers have also tested positive for Covid-19 at the JBS Food Canada beef processing plant in Brooks, with the community itself having over 760 cases. The plant is now down to one shift.
While Alberta and the Canadian governments work together to increase the number of meat inspectors available, Fabian Murphy, president of the Agriculture Union that represents the federal meat inspectors wants safety guarantees. Seven inspectors have already tested positive for the virus at the Cargill plant. Murphy has also stated that it’s only a matter of time before JBS plant in Brooks is also forced to temporarily halt production, stating that a, “14-day shutdown would allow all employees to self-isolate. After (that) production at the facility could resume.”
Pork producers are also under great pressures
The Canadian pork industry across western Canada is under extreme pressure, being called “the worst scenario seen in decades.” Faced with dropping prices for their finished hogs, no buyers for their piglets for finishing and growing backlogs in processing, the concern now is how many family pork farms will go under before this is over?
Production lines in Western Canada plants have been slowed down for better safety for workers. Add to that, US pork processing plants closing because of widespread Covid-19 outbreaks with their workers. Currently there has been a 25% reduction in pork slaughter capacity south of the border. Both the Canadian and the US pork industry producer have warned of large amounts of animals will have to be culled. And it has already started in small scales with larger culls within the next weeks.
Chicken producers are facing the same issues
Chicken producers are also facing the same issues. Sofina Foods Inc., that runs a Lilydale chicken processing plant in Calgary confirmed that one employee tested positive for COVID-19 and is in self-isolation. As well, doctors are investigating two possible cases of COVID-19 found in workers at Mountain View Poultry, near the Town of Okotoks.
British Columbia has at least two chicken processing plants with confirmed growing Covid-19 cases. One plant has temporary closed.
The talk of major animal culls, is not just talk
John Tyson, chairman of Tyson Foods, the world’s second largest processor and marketer of chicken, beef, and pork had very strong comments in a full-page ad published in The New York Times, Washington Post and Arkansas Democrat-Gazette. In part Tyson’s top person said bluntly:
“The food supply chain is breaking. Meat processing plants across the US are closing due to the pandemic. US farmers don’t have anywhere to sell their livestock. Millions of pigs, chickens and cattle will be euthanized because of slaughterhouse closures, limiting supplies at grocers.”
With published reports, the animal culling has already began. One Prince Edward Island farm euthanized market ready hogs and then dumped them in a landfill. Iowa farmer, Al Van Beek said, “What are we going to do?” after ordering 7,500 piglets to be aborted. Daybreak Foods Inc., based in Lake Mills, Wisconsin has used carts and tanks of carbon dioxide to euthanize tens of thousands of healthy egg-laying hens. Eggs are no longer being bought by their customers in the restaurants and food-service business.
USDA sets up “Coordination Centre” to “assist on depopulation”
The U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) has posted online:
“The USDA’s Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS) is establishing a National Incident Coordination Center to provide direct support to producers whose animals cannot move to market as a result of processing plant closures due to COVID-19. Going forward, APHIS Coordination Center, State Veterinarians, and other state officials will be assisting to help identify potential alternative markets if a producer is unable to move animals, and if necessary, advise and assist on depopulation and disposal methods.”
“We stress the importance of avoiding food losses and waste caused by disruptions throughout food supply chains, which could exacerbate food insecurity and nutrition risks and economic loss.” April 21st G20 agreement.
If the G20 matters, North America, gets an “F” so far
The stress on the food supply chain continues to grow the longer Covid-19 lasts. On April 28th Meat producer JBS said it was reopening a Minnesota pork plant, that was shuttered by the pandemic to euthanize up to 13,000 pigs a day for farmers, not to produce meat for consumers.
Governments must get a handle on the cull of livestock and the billions of dollars of rotting produce meant to go to our populations. There are thousands of people that are hungry. The use of Food Banks in North America has hit new records, with more people needing help every day. But at the same time billions of dollars of food is being destroyed.
What’s wrong with the picture? It is just wrong; the USDA has set-up a Coordination Center to help farmer either sell their products or help kill and dispose of the carcasses in mass. All this, while people go hungry in the same country during a pandemic.
Governments need to step in and redirect this food from a landfill to population that needs it. Until this happens, the links in our food supply chain will continue to be stressed. Food for thought.
What the USMCA Might Mean for Agriculture and Biotechnology?
We welcome guest writers to all of our Todayville platforms. Here’s a submission from Emily Folk. Emily is passionate about agricultural sustainability and more of her work can be found on her site, Conservation Folks. In this story, Emily Folk explains the USMCA Impact on Agriculture.
What Could USMCA Mean for Agriculture and Biotechnology?
The United States Mexico Canada Agreement (USMCA) has been in the news a lot lately. The leaders of the respective nations signed the trade agreement on November 30, 2019, and ratification is pending. You can think of the USMCA as an updated version of the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA).
U.S. President Donald Trump vowed to renegotiate NAFTA after publicly speaking unfavourably about it. The USMCA is the result of that vow. The agreement spans several areas, such as the origin of automobile parts and new labor laws in Mexico that make it easier for workers to unionize. The USMCA also has a “sunset clause” that makes its terms expire after 16 years. Plus, every six years, the leaders of the countries involved must agree on whether to extend the deal.
Some agriculture-specific stipulations also exist within the USMCA. Additionally, the agreement notably mentions biotechnology. Here’s a closer look at how the USMCA might change these two industries.
More Exporting Opportunities for Farmers
One of the key points often mentioned about the USMCA is that parties expect the agreement to cause a $2 billion increase in U.S. agriculture exports, triggering a $65 billion rise in U.S. gross domestic product (GDP). Canada and Mexico are currently the top two exporting markets for American farmers, supporting more than 325,000 American jobs. In 2018, the food and agricultural exports destined for Canada and Mexico totaled more than $39.7 billion.
The USMCA also opens exporting opportunities that did not exist before. Now, U.S. dairy farmers will have expanded access to send products such as fluid and powdered milk, cheese and cream to Canadian parties. There will also no longer be U.S. tariffs on whey and margarine. This change is notable, considering the Canadian dairy market produced roughly 17% of the United States’ annual output over the past three years.
In exchange, Canada will give the United States new access to chicken and eggs, plus increased access to turkey. Plus, all other agriculture products traded between the U.S. and Mexico will be under a zero-tariff model.
Moving Forward With Agricultural Biotechnology
Another improvement associated with the USMCA is that it looks at agricultural technology more broadly than other trade agreements have.
For example, the Trans-Pacific Partnership — a proposed trade agreement between 12 nations — only addressed biotechnology regarding recombinant DNA (rDNA). That process involves joining the molecules from two different species, then inserting the product into a host to create new genetic combinations. Instead, the USMCA opens possibilities for all kinds of agricultural technology, including gene editing. Moving ahead with biotechnology could be crucial for addressing pressing matters that affect agriculture, such as water scarcity.
Approximately 700 million people suffer from water scarcity, and that number could double by 2025. Also, the agriculture industry is the greatest user of water. Things must change — both to address the growing water scarcity problem and to give farmers more options for growing things without using so much water.
Biotechnology has already helped, and it seems highly likely to continue spurring progress. In one example, scientists altered the expression of one gene common to all plants. This change led to a 25% increase in the plants’ water-use efficiency without adversely impacting yield or photosynthesis.
As part of the USMCA, Mexico, Canada and the United States agreed to improve information sharing and cooperation about biotechnology matters related to trade. That change could speed new developments, resulting in positive outcomes for all involved groups and the world at large.
Fairer Agricultural Grading Standards
A grading system for agricultural products defines trading procedures. For example, commercial buyers of a product grown in another country refer to the grading standards to set expectations about a product’s quality. The USMCA specifies that Canada will evaluate U.S. imported wheat and assign it a grade no less favourable than it would give Canadian-grown wheat.
Canada will also no longer require country of origin statements associated with inspection certificates or quality grades. The United States and Canada will discuss issues related to seed regulations under the USMCA, too.
Concerning Mexico and the United States, the two countries agreed to non-discriminatory grading standards and services. Moreover, a dialogue will begin between the two countries to flesh out the details for quality standards and grading regarding trade.
A Promising Future
It’s too early to say what the real-life effects will be of the changes outlined here. But, the commitments laid out within the USMCA seem like they’ll represent clear improvements for agriculture professionals, as well as everyone who benefits from their goods.
I’m Emily Folk, and I grew up in a small town in Pennsylvania. Growing up I had a love of animals, and after countless marathons of watching Animal Planet documentaries, I developed a passion for ecology and conservation. You can read more of my work by clicking this link: Conservation Folks.